we use our
Glance Networks facility to display our screen in your web browser. In
this mode we cannot view or control your computer.
here for information. Click here to
join an FTG Glance session.
|We can run
in 'reverse screen sharing' mode and thus view your
computer. You must give us permission and can cancel sharing at any time during
us to control remote instruments connected to USB or serial
ports. Your COM1 becomes our virtual COM1, etc. This
powerful facility eliminates expensive on-site visits.
When running a BASIC program
from the IDE (editor) it's easy to quit: just click the red
When running from a macro
button add line MainEvents = True to enable the Abort BASIC
menu command shown below. This works in all FTG Software programs.
While this capability has
been available for some time (DESIGN 2.30.1305 and MEASURE (Scantraq)
2.30.1101) we thought it was too easy to inadvertently stop a lengthy
macro (e.g. multiple spectra measured over a wide temperature
range). This issue has been addressed in DESIGN 2.61.3052, and
MEASURE (Scantraq) 2.51.1347 with a new confirmation dialog: click
Yes to quit BASIC or No (default) to continue. Note that
quitting may not be immediate.
calculates absorptance vs. wavelength and absorptance vs. thickness
(differential absorptance) for specified layers. While most designers
never use these
capabilities, they are important for solar cells and other active
can also be applied to the design of laser-resistant coatings.
Sample file absorp.zip
contains FILM Archives
absorp1.faw & absorp2.faw, Excel 97 model absorp.xls and DESIGN
Integrating differential absorptance over layer thickness gives total
absorptance for each
layer at the specified wavelength.(This corrects a previous definition
where results were
normalized by total absorptance.) Back to top
Using ActiveX server
audio.exe based on
Microsoft library mci32.ocx, it is
very easy to add audio to FilmStar (Scantraq) BASIC programs. A typical
application is informing QC technicians when a scan is completed. A
program plus support files are provided in audio.zip.
Need to optimize a
coating for two substrates?
This can be accomplished by
changing the substrate index during each iteration. An example is given
Copy the .bas files to c:\winfilm\basic32; copy bbar.faw file
c:\winfilm\designs; copy bbar2sub.xls to c:\winfilm\workbook.
Archive bbar and click Evaluate...
activate the FilmStar Workbook. Close any open worksheets and open
Just click Optimize... Optimize
to proceed. Back
A UK user reported that grid scroll
bars in dialogs such as the Data Table (<F8>) sometimes turn black
thereby making scrolling inconvenient. We were not able to reproduce
this error, but the user reported that our suggested fix solved the
Configuration... Preferences... <Grid Style>... Grid... Type... Classic.
Thanks to Charles
Anderson at St Gobain for supplying the following
step-by-step tutorial on utilizing FilmStar as an automation server for
applications developed in C++.
It is very easy to
create an MFC automation C++ client that uses FilmStar
DESIGN (MEASURE) as an automation server. To do this :
- Using Visual C++
Studio create a new MFC application using MFC AppWizard (.exe). In step
3 check the Automation checkbox.
- With the Class Wizard
create a new class. That is, select the "Add Class" button and
afterwards select "From a type Library". A file selection dialog box
appears. Files appear withe the extensions "tlb olb and dll". However,
change this to all files and go to the Winfilm folder. Select the
Design1_32.exe file and select the Open button. A Confirm Classes
dialog appears with _clsMain and _clsBasic as the new C++ classes and
Design1_32.cpp and Design1_32.h as the files that will implement the
classes. Select the OK button and the classes are created.
- To use the classes
somewhere in the application create instances of the new classes. That
is add the lines :
For the _clsBasic
class (the _clsMain is the same) add the lines
Note that automation
ProgID is called "FtgDesign.clsBasic". The
program is now ready to call the methods such as with the lines :
That is all there is
to it. Back
Your computer does not
retain capacity settings, preferences or file locations? Probably you
are in an organization with overly restrictive IT policies.
entries are stored in *.ini files in C:\Winfilm\Config or
C:\Scantraq\Config. These are sometimes not saved because users do not
have appropriate permissions. The problem can be seen by right-clicking
on an .ini file name in Explorer and examining Properties.. Security.
If it is not possible to edit Permissions and add Write, contact your
IT manager to fix the issue. We suggest that you also demand full
rights to update (reinstall) FTG programs.
performs the following calculation in order to correct raw
Standard * (Sample -
Baseline)/(Reference - Baseline)
With a modern
instrument where the baseline is reliably zero, this calculation is not
normally required in transmission. It is, however, required in
Hitachi and Shimadzu users who cannot use MEASURE can perform similar
calculations in DESIGN on imported spectra. While the calculation is
readily performed in FilmStar BASIC, you can also use the FSPlot
Formulator to evaluate a formula over an entire spectral range. The
process goes like this:
a. Import measurements
and convert to the same wavelength range by using Sub DataConvert.
b. Use the FSPlot Formulator to correct the spectrum. Assuming that
Baseline data is in column B, Reference data in column C, Sample data
in Column D and Standard in Column E, the corrected spectrum is given
by the following formula. Once everything is set up correctly, pressing
<F9> runs the formula without showing the formula editor.
E*(D-B)/(C-B);del B;del B;del B;del B
inspecting the plot, click
Edit...Copy Data to copy a corrected spectrum to the clipboard. (The
"del" commands remove unwanted columns C-F.) Warning: a spectrum
will be clipped if the data goes above or below graph limits. Try -10
to 110 to make certain that clipping is avoided.
macro encapsulating the above steps is easily developed. BASIC
copies FSPlot spectra to the clipboard. Back to
Suppose you have a
column of data, say a spectral weighting function, corresponding to a 1
nm interval. You want to copy and paste this into a FilmStar Workbook
model, but prefer to convert it to a 2 nm interval in order to speed up
calculations. This task is readily accomplished with the following
Excel VBA program:
' Excel VBA code
to delete every other line beginning at StartRow
Const StartRow = 4 ' starting row number
Dim s$, i&
i = StartRow
Do Until Cells(i, 1) = ""
If Val(Cells(i, 1)) Mod 2 = 1 Then Cells(i, 1).EntireRow.Delete
i = i + 1
If anyone can think of
a way to do this without a macro, please let us know! Back
This error typically
occurs after installing FilmStar on a new computer and copying
previous designs and data files. The problem is that settings in
c:\winfilm\config\design1.ini were not transferred.
- Check directories in
- Check values in
File...Configuration...Capacity. It is possible that previous data
files expect larger data arrays than currently allowed.
- Check entries in User
Index Functions, Macros, and the Workbook.
A convenient procedure
is to save the original design1.ini
(measure.ini, scantraq.ini) to floppy or USB stick on the original
machine and copy it to the new machine. Then, if the FilmStar data
directories on the new machine are different from the original, open
design1.ini in Notepad and modify paths via global search and replace. Back to
|FilmStar saves size
and position settings for some dialogs. This can lead to off-screen
windows after desktop area is reduced. This might happen when
decreasing resolution to 1024x768 or 800x600 for projecting or
screen-sharing. To circumvent this difficulty, programs since 14 Dec 09
include a Reset Dialogs command in all Help menus.
If it's not
to reach the Help menu with the mouse, type
<Alt+H><R> for the Reset Dialogs prompt and
<Alt+F4><Y> to close FilmStar. Dialogs will
be reset after restarting.
Yes it does! DDE
requires brackets around commands. Otherwise the system hangs up. VBA
format should be as follows:
ch& = DDEInitiate("DESIGN1", "Main")
DDEExecute ch&, "[Fred;]"
Names used in DDEInitiate are as
follows: DESIGN1, MPE983,
MPE19AX, MHP8453, MH3410, MCARY5, MCARY5U, MPE950, MPE1050.
Click here for
information about DDE with FileMaker. Back
Note added March
2012: Users with many materials
should use Stack Mode
instead of Extended Materials.
Film Indices (in File
Configuration Capacity) to a number n > 52
places DESIGN into Extended
Materials mode. Since
designs in this mode are
incompatible with normal designs, the facility should only be utilized
than 52 materials are actually required in one design! In
operation, letters A-Z (+ a-z when n > 26) indicate film
materials. When n
> 52, letters are replaced by numbers enclosed in square
brackets with the
numbers corresponding to those in the Film Indices editor. That is,
(replacement is NOT automatic) by
.08876 .53248 .25093
where the Film Indices
editor looks like
|The Windows XP DESIGN
File Open dialog shown here does not include a
places bar with My
Desktop and similar icons.
bar requires a simple
Registry tweak. This
modification will not affect MS Office file dialogs. Windows 7 users need only click
Organize.. Layout in a File Open dialog.
the Registry at your own risk only if you know what you're doing! Users
in large companies should contact IT.
Back to top
Administrator enables managers to control access to features in DESIGN,
INDEX and MEASURE. Examples: preventing QC technicians from adjusting
scan speeds, preventing optical coating technicians from modifying thin
dialog is accessed in the Help menu in DESIGN and MEASURE.
Administrator status is enabled via a Security ID Module programmed
The 'Author Only'
setting is utilized in conjunction with NTFS
Please contact FTG
Software for further information.
Back to top
Need to integrate
FilmStar with Excel
or Word but have no idea what to do? Try
the following example. It will work without DESIGN being open.
In Excel access the
VBA editor (Alt+F11). Click Tools
should see FtgDesign1
listed as a Reference. Check this to add it to your
project. You will find it listed in the Object Browser with two
Now open a new module and try the following VBA program:
Set dBasic = New FtgDesign1.clsBasic
Set dMain = New FtgDesign1.clsMain
k = dBasic.Macro("Fred;")
On Error Resume Next 'prevents error 440
Now that you have a
working example, you will be inspired to Read
the Manual. Back to top
New computers lack the LPT
(parallel) printer port and cannot read HASP LPT keys. Since adding
adapter card does not work, the keys must be exchanged for USB
types. Pricing is nominal, but current support is required.
As an alternative to packaging and
returning old keys, please e-mail a photo of the destroyed key(s).
We suggest squeezing the plug with pliers as in the above picture.
Back to top
FilmStar BASIC program
DESIGN password required) imports TFCalc™ designs directly via the clipboard while TFCalc is
open. Be sure to transfer
GetWindowTitle.bas as well!
(This is used to grab the design name from the TFCalc title window.)
The TFCalc design resembles the following when pasted into a text
editor. The first layer is next to the substrate.
TFCalc.bas also opens
designs saved as text files (*.txt) in the Save Layer Data command in
the TFCalc Layers dialog. While TFCalc is not required, comparing
spectra is rather less convenient.
You need to assign
FilmStar index symbols
(L, H etc.) to TFCalc material names (SiO2, TiO2 etc.). This is
accomplished by listing them in the Film Indices Dispersion column.
TFCalc *.mat materials files must first be converted to FilmStar *.itw
section below). Note
must be in nm; set FilmStar DESIGN accordingly in Setup Parameters. All
materials, even constants, must be defined by dispersion files.
provides similar functionality and may be simpler for users unfamiliar
with FilmStar BASIC.
sure to verify that the design is correct
and comparing results in both programs. When
comparing results be sure to
check the setting for Side 2
Compensation in Setup
Parameters. A file
capable of automatically importing entire directories, is planned. Back to top
TFCalcMatl.bas (in full
installation or basic32.zip)
imports TFCalc™ material files (*.mat). It expects the
samples of TFCalc .mat files which do not work properly, so that we can
modify the code
accordingly. This BASIC program requires INDEX 2.30.0201 or newer. A file importer
capable of automatically importing entire directories, is
data files of different types (binary, ASCII, Data
Manager, PECCS) have the same .sp extension. How can the data be
FilmStar (Scantraq)? An easy option is to open the file in
re-store as J-CAMP (.dx extension) which can directly be opened in
this is not convenient, here are further options:
- Import binary
PECCS files via BASIC
- Use programs
pe-sp1.bas, pe-sp2.bas (basic32.zip)
to import .sp ASCII files
- Convert .sp file
to J-CAMP (.dx) with PE
The last choice can
convert multiple files. Copy the program to c:\uvwinlab.
New files are created in c:\uvwinlab\convert. Back to
The number of
dispersive Index Functions in DESIGN and INDEX was
extended in DESIGN 2.23.6001 and INDEX 2.23.2001. Not familiar with
Functions? You begin in INDEX by fitting continuous dispersion
functions to n,k vs. wavelength data. Functions are then adjusted in
where further fitting explains differences between calculated and
Tables (*.itw) stored with INDEX 2.23.2001
and newer will
be incompatible with earlier versions of DESIGN and INDEX.
1. Open INDEX and
The functions which are
initially checked are those defined in previous versions of DESIGN and
INDEX. New functions are CYGEN, CYGENK2, SELL1, SELL1K1, SELL1K2,
and SELL2K2. As you scroll through the grid, note that equations are
displayed at the bottom. Consult these carefully if copying results
Examples of Index
Functions based on TiO2 data sets will be found in
subdirectory c:\winfilm\index\functions. Start FilmStar INDEX and
switch to this directory in File...Configuration...Directories
to switch back later). Open a file. Click Functions...Plot
to visually see the fit and Functions...Fit
Coefficients to review
numeric values. If you open an Index Table in INDEX (or FILM Archive
DESIGN) which references a function not currently in the list of
function is automatically added.
2. In DESIGN, the same
list of built-in functions will be found in the Film
Indices editor under Edit...Built-in
3. Initial estimates
for highly nonlinear functions CYGEN and CYGENK2 may be
especially elusive. Depending on your data, there could be multiple
providing equally good fits. If you have difficulties with these or
with other built-in
or user-defined functions, send us your n,k tables (*.itw or Excel
e-mail attachments. Thanks to Steve Tuenge for suggesting function
CYGEN (Generalized Cauchy) which he has found very useful over the
4. File and Edit menus
have been added to the User Index Function dialog. These include
facilities to load and save
Function Collections (*.itf) (see c:\winfilm\index\examples.itf). Note
Function Collection is actually the [UserIndex] section of
c:\windows\design1.ini. An important use is transferring Index
sure to backup (save as a Function
Collection) any functions
that you are using before opening a new Function Collection.
The Edit menu lets you
delete functions and alphabetize function names.
5. File aconst.itw can
be used to test the following Index Functions included
in examples.itf: ACONFM
(uses formula), ACONVB
BASIC program aconst.bas), ACONWS
(uses FilmStar Workbook indxfnc.vts), ACONXL
(uses Excel indxfnc.xls via DDE). Back to top
c:\winfilm\basic32) creates index tables from
multiple spectra via DESIGN's DLS refinement algorithm.The tables is
then pasted into INDEX. As an example, we
simulated measured spectra of 50 nm Ag on
1.52 substrate at 6 degrees and 45 degrees P and S polarization.
Archive and sample files are found in indexsolve.zip
files to c:\winfilm\designs and spectral data
to c:\winfilm\spectra. IndexSolve1.faw creates spectral files and
IndexSolve2.faw is utilized when running IndexSolve.bas. Once it is
that IndexSolve.bas works as expected, it is most instructive to repeat
calculations with spectral noise added. This is accomplished via
program AddNoise.bas. Back
The following FilmStar
BASIC code generates an index (n, k) vs wavelength table and
copies it to the clipboard. Back
Dim w!, xn!, xk!, s$
Row% = 4 ' Row in
Film Indices dialog
For w = 400 To 700 Step 10
GetIndex Row, w, xn, xk
s$ = s & CStr(w) & vbTab & CStr(xn) &
vbTab & CStr(xk) & vbCrLf
We suspect there are
firmware discrepancies in these instruments. If
your Lambda 40 (or similar) times out during background correction, try
the following line under [Configuration] in
Exit and restart
If your Lambda 2 or 20
(or similar) times out during background correction, try
the following line:
us about this. Back to top
Expert mode OFF
automatically selects common beam filters as shown below (default mode
for PE UVWinLab).
PE Lambda 900
319.2 T=100% (no filter)
319.2 T=100% (no filter)
Expert Mode OFF is
equivalent to Expert Mode ON with the default filter program built into
MEASURE (Scantraq). Note that Expert Mode ON is now required for
selecting a single filter for the entire scan (not
Server error (950/1050)
A user reported Lambda Server
error: Could not connect to instrument - Object variable or With
block variable not set. The problem followed network security
updates when IT failed to restore the necessary user-permissions.
Restoring permissions resolved the issue. This problem can arise in
Mpe950.exe and Mpe1050.exe which both utilize MSLambdaServer.exe.
A running log of
input/output activity can help us debug problems in data
acquisition. A log file is enabled by adding a line similar to the
under [Files] in
IOLog=c:\winfilm\cary500.log (or c:\scantraq\cary500.log)
This adds a new Test
menu to MEASURE/Scantraq
containing item I/O Log Open.
When this item is checked instrument commands and responses are stored
specified file. Since new data is appended, the file can be used
repeatedly. Uncheck to close and disable the log file. E-mail
the file to us for analysis and
add the exact wording of any error messages.
When no longer
required, the Test menu is removed by deleting the IOLog entry, or
(preferably, since you might need it again) by commenting it out by
prefixing the entry with a semicolon, that
is ";IOLog= etc". Back
DESIGN handles mixed
materials via User Index Function Mixed.
formula expresses the final index as a function of constituent
indices. A linear mixing model would be expressed as
n = A*N1+(1-A)*N2
k = A*K1+(1-A)*K2
where N1, K1 are
indices for material 1 and N2, K2 are indices for material
2. Here A
is the mixing fraction (which can be treated as an optimization
variable). Calculated results for TiO2+Ti are illustrated below. Please
that no claim is being made that a linear model is realistic; more
relationships are easily programmed.
packing density < 1 can be simulated by mixing
film materials with
where Void is an index table containing values 200 nm, n =
1.0; 1000 nm, n = 1.0; 5000 nm, n = 1.0. Users should verify that
reasonable; the following program illustrates a
method for viewing index values.
Dim fmt$, w!, xn!, xk!
Const f$ = "0.00000" ' Format
For w = 400 To 800 Step 50
GetIndex 3, w, xn, xk ' Material 3 (first film) in
' Film Indices editor
Debug.Print CStr(w) & ", " & Format(xn,f$) & ",
" & Format(xk,f$)
If you find the mouse
pointer disappearing in the main graphics window, try setting Control
Panel.. Mouse Properties.. Pointers to a different scheme. We recommend
Windows Inverted which, in our opinion, offers the best contrast no
matter what the background. Back
At first it appears
that there is no way to use OCXs (ActiveX components) in FilmStar
BASIC. While you cannot add a component to the BASIC UserDialog Editor,
you may be able
to use the OCX as an object.
This is illustrated in the following code snippet
which records temperature from an Omega DPi32 thermometer. The ActiveX
iSeries10.ocx is provided by the manufacturer.
' IMPORTANT: be sure to add reference to
Dim iDevice As Object
' Found the object name in the Registry
Set iDevice = CreateObject("iSeriesAlpha10.iDevice")
set COM port
Debug.Print .LastData ' read thermometer
Set iDevice = Nothing
That's all there is to
it. You do, of course, lose any graphics provided by
the OCX, but very often you really don't need that anyway. Back to top
reflectance your Baseline scan attempts to compensate for the
reflectance attachment. Typically the scan is performed with no optic
(or a 'black sample') on the attachment. WHAT
YOU DON'T WANT TO DO is check 'Block sample beam during Baseline scan' (or
similar label in older versions).
This option can be found in PE 983, PE Lambda 800-1050 Scan Method
dialogs and is generally intended for transmittance measurements.
Our Glance facility allows us to view your computer. This is often
the fastest way to
resolve issues, and very often the ONLY way.
problems by reproducing them with data files sent to
us as e-mail attachments. The body of the e-mail should also include a
clear statement of
the problem, exact wording of
error messages, etc. Users with expired annual support may be required
DESIGN...Enable FILM Archive Mode (File Menu) so
that designs and parameters are stored in one file (*.faw,
c:\winfilm\designs). Attach the file to your e-mail. There are two
choices if your design includes dispersive materials:
1. Attach ALL index
tables referenced in Film Indices (*.itw, c:\winfilm\index). If the
problem can be reproduced with constant indices there is no need to
attach index tables. ATTACH ALL LISTED TABLES
IN Setup.. Film Indices, EVEN IF NOT USED IN THE
DESIGN! SIMPLIFY BY FIRST DELETING UNUSED MATERIALS.
Recommended alterative: if using
only dispersion tables (not dispersive functions such as
Sellmeier), you can enable Archive n,k Data
(File Menu) which embeds dispersion data in the FILM Archive
THIS IS THE BEST WAY TO DEAL WITH DISPERSION.
2. If using a
Wavelength List (*.wls) or Wave/Angle List (*.wal) add that as well. As
an alternative to a Wavelength List (often used with CIE data),
consider using Wavelength Range instead.
3. If you have Subscript
out of range errors it is likely
that you need to increase values in File.. Configuration.. Capacity.
These values are stored in ..\Winfilm\Design1.ini which you could
attach to your e-mail.
MONITOR...Upon exiting MONITOR or clicking File...Save
All four work.* files are
stored in c:\winfilm\monitor. Attach these files zipped into one file.
Add index tables referenced in Film Indices.
the four files referenced in File...Save
As. The FILM or FILM Archive
file is stored in c:\winfilm\designs and the other three files are in
BASIC...Attach a short code snippet showing your problem. Isolate the
problem in the simplest code possible.
Long complex programs may entail extra charges.
Spectra...Attach any spectral data files being
utilized in DESIGN or INDEX. Or send an Excel .xls file (zipped please)
with data pasted therein. Please do not send spectral data lists via
fax. If you don't have FilmStar MEASURE, there are a number of options
to create data files. See the winfilm\basic32 directory for support for
Shimadzu and other spectrophotometers.
Excel...Problems in running FilmStar (server) from Excel (client) or
vice-versa cannot be analyzed with "it doesn't work." Please
attach the Excel file (.xls or .xlsm) and any FilmStar files
required for us to reproduce the problem. VBA code copied and
pasted into your e-mail is insufficient! The amount of help
provided as part of annual support is at our discretion. This
may be useful: Excel (as
Please include program
version number. This is found by clicking
Help...About. If the program absolutely does not open at all, you can
version number by right clicking the file name in Windows Explorer.
occasionally report problems that are already fixed. Before contacting
us, consult the FilmStar Revisions
History page to
determine whether a newer release fixes the problem.
In some cases it is
useful to attach screen images.
This is accomplished as follows:
- Copy the active window
to the clipboard with <Alt+PrtScr>
(<PrtScr> by itself copies the entire screen.)
- Paste into a graphics
program which can store in GIF or PNG format.
- A recommended alternative is to
paste images into a Word or Excel attachment; several images can be pasted into a single document.
not send graphics
in .bmp format! Back to
creates a graph in the Report Generator that is supposed to fill
the page. A user asked "Is it possible to reset the value for my Report
I am printing graphics in DESIGN? The current setting in the template
83>> and I would like to have this reset to default to
Default relative graph
size can be changed in the Configuration dialog
Misc tab. Another approach is to use a BASIC program to set the size to
t$ = Template
Template = "<<Graph
k = Macro("ReportShow;")
Template = t$
restore saved template
This can be assigned
to a macro key. Back
(2.4M) contains the installer for the Schott filter glass program Filter
that was originally available on SchottGlassTech.com. Excel program
might be useful for analyzing and combining filters.
Back to top
Soprank.exe (537K) installs the freely available Sopra
materials measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry) of optical indices.
INDEX, Sopra index files (*.nk) can be imported
and re-stored as FilmStar index files (*.itw) via File...Import.
If decommissioning the
old computer, be sure to copy all Winfilm subdirectories to a CD or
USB memory stick. The next step is to install FilmStar on your new
computer. You then need to transfer data files and custom settings. The following assumes that FilmStar
(Scantraq) programs are located in C:\Winfilm (C:\Scantraq) on both computers (if not, adjust
or, if your FilmStar support is not up-to-date, from the latest version
that you have on CD or on your hard disk. Installation
passwords are found at the bottom of the FilmStar News e-mails sent periodically. If you have lost the passwords to older versions, please
c:\Winfilm (c:\Scantraq) subdirectories from
computer to the new; do not copy the programs directory.
computer for subdirectory
c:\Winfilm\Config (c:\Scantraq\Config). If it's there, (already
copied in Step 2) skip Step 4;
if not, proceed to the next step.
Copy c:\Windows\Design1.ini (also
c:\Windows\Measure.ini or c:\Windows\Scantraq.ini)
to c:\Winfilm\Config or c:\Scantraq\Config. This transfers any custom settings.
Can't open designs
with missing n,k tables or user-defined functions? check 'Can
open designs...' in File.. Configuration.. Preferences.
You can then import designs and later repair index values. The
location of user-defined functions was changed in 2.30.3402
(11/30/2004). When updating from previous versions it will be necessary to transfer
any functions from design1.ini to a function collection file
(*.itf). Note that 2.61.3048 is required to open designs with
missing index functions.
Note: Attach your USB Security ID Module
until after installing FilmStar. This ensures that Windows plug-and-play will find it. Back to top